Games Bibliography

This page is a collecting point for the extended bibliography I've developed over the years with my academic studies. There's a ton more than just this, but here's a starting point for the work I've done on games, learning, and motivation.

Abt, C. (1968).  Games for learning.  In Simulation games in learning.  Boocock, S. and Schild, E. (eds).  Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.  64-65

Amory, A. (1999). The use of computer games as an educational tool: identification of appropriate game types and game elements. British Journal of Educational Technology, 30(4)

Asgari, M.  (2005). A three-factor model of motivation and game design.  Accessed from, 21 April 2005

Bandura, A. (1977).  Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavior change.  Psychological Review, 84, 191-215

Bandura, A. (1993).  Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning.  Educational Psychologist, 28, 117-148

Bandura, A. (1994).  Self-Efficacy. In V.S. Ramachaudran (Ed.). Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp 71-81).  New York: Academic Press.

Becta.  (2001).  Computer Games in Education Project.  Accessed from, 9 December, 2005

Benjamin, Walter. (1968). "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction". From Illuminations.  Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.

Bos, N., Shami, N., and Naab, S. (2006). A globalization simulation to teach corporate social responsibility: Design features and analysis of student reasoning. Simulation & Gaming, 37(1)

Brody, H. (1993). Video games that teach? Technology Review, 96, 51-57.

Bryant, F. B., &  Smith, D. (2001). Refining the Architecture of Aggression: A Measurement Model for the Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Journal of Research in Personality, 35(2), 138-167.

Bucy, E. P. (2004). The Debate. The Information Society, 20(5), 371-371.

Bucy, E.P. (2004). Interactivity in Society: Locating an Elusive Concept. The Information Society, 20(5), 373-383.

Burgoon, J., Bonito, J., Ramirez, A., Dunbar, N., Kam, K., and Fischer, J.  (2002). Testing the Interactivity Principle: Effects of Mediation, Propinquity, and Verbal and Nonverbal Modalities in Interpersonal Interaction. Journal of Communication, 52(3), 657.

Carroll, J. L., Carolin, P. M.  (1989). Relationship between game playing and personality. Psychological Reports, June, 705-706.

Chaffee, S. (1991). Explication (Communication Concepts 1). Newbury Park: Sage

Chua, A.  (2005).  The design and implementation of a simulation game for teaching knowledge management.  Journal for the American Society of Information Science and Technology 56 (11) 1207-1216

Cordova, D.L., and Lepper, M.R. (1996) Intrinsic motivation and the process of learning: Beneficial effects of contextualization, personalization, and choice. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 715-730.

Costikyan, G. (2002).  I have no words and I must design: toward a critical vocabulary for games.  Originally published in Interactive Fantasy (1994) #2.  Accessed from, 21 April 2005.

Costikyan, G. (2005).   The revolution began with paper.  The Escapist.  Accessed from, 7 February 2008

Csikszentmihalyi, M.  (1975).  Beyond Boredom and Anxiety.  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Csikszentmihalyi, M.  (1991).  Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience.  New York: Harper & Row

de Freitas, S. (2007). Serious games-engaging training solutions: A research and development project for supporting training needs. British Journal of Educational Technology, 38(3), 523-525.

Diamond, L.K. & Brannick, M.T. (2003, April).  Performance and perceived team and player efficacy in bowling teams.  Paper presented to the 18th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizations Psychology, Orlando, FL.

Diamond, P. M., &  Magaletta, R. (2006). The Short-Form Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ-SF): A Validation Study With Federal Offenders. Assessment, 13(3), 227-240.

Dobson, M. W. (2008). Exploring interactive stories in an HIV/AIDS learning game: HEALTHSIMNET. Simulation & Gaming, 39(1), 39.

Downes, E. and McMillan, S. (2000). Defining Interactivity.  New Media & Society.  2 (2) 157- 179

Durlak, J. T. (1987). A typology for interactive media. Communication Yearbook, 10, 743-757.

Ermi, L., Helio, S., and Mayra, F. (2004).  The power of games and control of playing: Children as the actors of game cultures. Report from Hypermedia Laboratory Net Series 6.  University of Tampere, Finland.

Fabricatore, C., Nussbaum, M.,  & Rosas, R. (2002). Playability in Action Videogames: A Qualitative Design Model. Human-Computer Interaction, 17(4), 311-368.

Faria, A. J. & Wellington, W. (2004). A survey of simulation game users, former-users, and never-users. Simulation & Gaming, 35(2)

Farrell, Thomas, and Soukoup Paul, ed.  (2002).  An Ong Reader, Challenges for Further Inquiry. Hampton Press, Inc. 

Fernandez-Ballesteros, R., Diez-Nicholas, J., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., & Bandura, A. (2002).  Certerminants and structural relation of personal efficacy to collective efficacy. Applies Psychology: An International Review, 51(1), 107-125

Fong, G. (2006). Adapting COTS games for military experimentation. Simulation & Gaming, 37(4).

Garris, R. (2002). Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice model. Simulation & Gaming, 33(4), 441.

Gee, J. (2003).  What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy.  New York: Palgrave Macmillan

Goddard, R. (2002). A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Measurement of Collective Efficacy: The Development of a Short Form. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 62(1), 97-110.

Goddard, R.D., Hoy, W.K., & Woolfolk-Hoy, A. (2004). Collective efficacy beliefs: Theoretical developments, empirical evidence, and future directions. Educational Researcher, 33(3), 3-13

Gorman, B. (2006). Towards integrated imitation of strategic planning and motion modeling in interactive computer games. Computers in Entertainment (CIE), 4(4), 10-es.

Greenberg, B., Sherry, J., Lachlan, K., Lucas, K. & Holmstrom, A.  (2005).  Orientations to video games among gender and age groups.  Originally presented at the National Communication Association annual conference, 2003, Miami, FL.

Greitzer, F., Kuchar, O., & Huston K.  (2007). Cognitive science implications for enhancing training effectiveness in a serious gaming context. Journal on Educational Resources in Computing (JERIC), 7(3)

Guillory, B. (2006) Media Typology and Its Use in Defining Convergence. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Dresden International Congress Centre, Dresden, Germany. Online, Retrieved 2008-04-11 from

Hacking, I. (1999). The Social Construction of What?. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Hill, J., Ray, C., Blair, J., and Carver, C. (2003). Puzzles and games: addressing different learning styles in teaching operating systems concepts.  Paper presented at the annual meeting of Special Interest Group on Computer Science Education conference, Reno, NV, February 2003.

Hoogeveen, M. (1997). Toward a theory of the effectiveness of multimedia systems. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 9(2), 151-168.

Huizinga. (1955). Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play-Element in Culture. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

Jeniel, P. & Samet, D. (2005).  Learning to play games in extensive form by valuation.  Journal of Economic Theory.  124.  129-148

Jensen, J.F. (1998) Interactivity: Tracing a New Concept in Media and Communication Studies, Nordicom Review 19(1): 185–204.

Ju, E. & Wagner, C. (1997). Personal computer adventure games: their structure, principles, and applicability for training.  The DATA BASE for Advances in Information Systems.  28(2).

Karrasch, A. (2003). Lessons learned on collective efficacy in multinational teams. U.S. Army Research Institute for the  Behavioral and Social Sciences.  Retrieved from, 10 April 2008

Katz, E. & Blumler, J. (eds). (1974). The Uses of Mass Communications: Current Perspectives on Gratification Research, Beverly Hills: Sage

Kiili, K. (2005).  Digital game-based learning: towards and experiential gaming model.  The Internet and Higher Education.  8.  13-24

Kiousis, S. (2002). Interactivity: A concept explication. New Media & Society, 4(3), 355-383.

Klabbers, H.  (1999).  Three easy pieces: a taxonomy on gaming.  In The international Simulation and Gaming Research Yearbook. Saunders, D. and Severn, J. (eds).  London: Kogan Page. 16-33

Klabbers, J. (2006). A framework for artifact assessment and theory testing. Simulation and Gaming, 37(2), 155-173.

Koster, R. (2005).  A Theory of Fun For Game Design.  Scottsdale, AZ: Paraglyph Press

Kriz, W. (2003). Creating Effective Learning Environments and Learning Organizations through Gaming Simulation Design. Simulation and Gaming, 34(4), 495-511.

Kriz, W. & Hense, J. (2006). Theory-oriented evaluation for the design of and research in gaming and simulation. Simulation and Gaming, 37(2).

Lieberman, D.A. (2006).  What can we learn from playing interactive games?  Chapter in P. Vorderer & J. Bryant (Eds.), Playing video games: Motives, responses, and consequences.  Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Liu, Y. (2003). Developing a Scale to Measure the Interactivity of Websites. Journal of Advertising Research, 43(2), 207-216.

Liu, Y., &  Shrum, J. (2002). What is interactivity and is it always such a good thing? Implications of definition, person, and situation for the influence of interactivity on advertising effectiveness. Journal of Advertising, 31(4), 53-64.

Mackinnon, A. (1999). A Short Form of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Personality and Individual Differences, 27(3), 405-416.

Mallon, B. & Webb, B. (2006). Applying a phenomenological approach to games analysis: A case study. Simulation and Gaming, 37(2), 209-225.

Mayer, I., & De Jong, M. (2004).  Combining GDSS and gaming for decision support.  Group Decision and Negotiation.  13.  223-241

Mayer, I., & De Jong, M. (2004).  Combining GDSS and gaming for decision support.  Group Decision and Negotiation.  13.  223-241

McLuhan, Marshall.  (1964).  Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man.  Signet Books.

McMillan, S. (2002).  Exploring models of interactivity from multiple research traditions: users, documents, and systems. In Lievrouw, L. & Livingstone, S. (eds.) The Handbook of New Media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.  163-182.

McMillan, S. (2002). A four-part model of cyber-interactivity.  New Media & Society.  4 (2) 271- 291

Mitchell, A. & Savill-Smith, C. (2004) The use of computer and video games for learning.  London: Learning and Skills Development Agency.

Molenda, Michael. (2003). "A New Typology of Instructional Materials."  Downloaded from

Moon, I., Schneider, M., and Carley, K., (2006). Evolution of player skill in the America’s Army game.  Simulation.  82(11).

Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Nam, S. (2003). The effects of online syllabus interactivity on students' perception of the course and instructor. The Internet and Higher Education, 6(1), 41-52.

Narayanasamy, V., Wong, K., Fung, C., and Rai, S.,  (2006). Distinguishing games and simulation games from simulators. Computers in Entertainment (CIE), 4(2), 9-es.

Neumann, J. & Morgenstern, O. (1944). Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. Princeton: Princeton University Press

Newhagen, J. E., Cordes, J. W., and Levy, M. R. (1995). Audience scope and the perception of interactivity in viewer mail in the Internet. Journal of Communication 45(3):164– 175.

Newhagen. (2004). Interactivity, Dynamic Symbol Processing, and the Emergence of Content in Human Communication. The Information Society, 20(5), 395-400.

Nichols, P. (2006).  Tactical decision-making simulations.  Marine Corps Gazette 90(9).

Ong, Walter.  (1982).  Interfaces of the Word: Studies on the Evolution of Consciousness and Culture.  Ithaca and London, Cornell University Press.

Ong,Y. L., & Lim, B. C. (2004). Decision-making in a brigade command team: Integrating theory and practice. Pointer Journal, 30(4). Retrieved from, 14 April 2008

Papa, M., Singhal, A., Law, S., Pant, S., Sood, S.,  & Rogers, E. (2000). Entertainment-education and social change: An analysis of parasocial interaction, social learning, collective efficacy, and paradoxical communication. Journal of Communication, 50(4), 31-55.

Perla, P, & Loughran, J. (2003). Using gaming and agent technology to explore C2.  Paper presented at 8th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, 2003.

Prensky, M.  (2001).  Digital Game-based Learning.  New York: McGraw Hill

Raybourn, E. (2007). Applying simulation experience design methods to creating serious game-based adaptive training systems. Interacting with Computers, 19(2), 206-214.

Ricci, K., Salas, E.,  & Cannon-Bowers, J. A. (1996). Do computer-based games facilitate knowledge acquisition and retention? Military Psychology, 8, 295-307.

Rouse, R.  (2001).  Game Design: Theory and practice.  Plano, TX: Wordware Publishing.

Sawyer, B.  (2002). Improving Public Policy Through Game-based Learning and Simulation.  Retrieved from 13 March 2008.

Sawyer, B. & Smith, P. (2008). Serious Games Taxonomy. Retrieved from  12 April 2008.

Schwabe, G. & Göth, C. (2005).  Mobile learning with a mobile game: design and motivational effects.  Journal of Computer Assisted Living.  21.  204-216

Sherry, J. (2001). The effects of violent videogames on aggression: a meta-analysis. Human Communication Research.  27(3).

Sherry, J., Lucas, K., Greenberg, B. & Lachlan, K. (2006).  "Video game uses and gratifications as predictors of use and game preference."  In P. Vorderer & J. Bryant (Eds.) Playing Computer Games: Motives, responses, and consequences.  Mahwah, NY: Erlbaum.

Smed, J., & Hakonen, H. (2003, September). Towards a definition of a computer game(TUCS Technical Report No. 553). Retrieved from, 14 April 2008

Squire, K., & Steinkuhler, C. (2005).  Meet the Gamers.  Library Journal [online edition].  Retrieved 3 May 2005

Sterrett, J. (2007).  Personal correspondence with the author.  Dr Sterrett teaches courses on the integration of games and simulations for training at the US Army Command & General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, KS

Stromer-Galley. (2004). Interactivity-as-Product and Interactivity-as-Process. The Information Society, 20(5), 391-394.

Sundar. (2004). Theorizing Interactivity's Effects. The Information Society, 20(5), 385-389.

Sweetser, P.l. & Johnson, D.  (2004).  "Player-centered game environments: Assessing player opinions, experiences, and issues."  (pp. 321-332).  In M. Rauterberg (Ed.). Entertainment Computing - I.C.E.C. 2004: Third International Conference, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, September 1-3, 2004.  New York, NY: Springer.

Thomas, D. (2005).  Messages and mediums: learning to teach with videogames.  On the Horizon.  13 (2).  89-94

Thomas, S. (2006). Pervasive learning games: Exploration of hybrid educational gamescapes.  Simulation & Gaming.  37(1). 41-55

Vorderer, P., Hartmann, T. (2003) Explaining the enjoyment of playing video games: the role of competition. Proceedings of the second international conference on Entertainment computing, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 2003.

Wang, S., &  Lin, S. (2007). The effects of group composition of self-efficacy and collective efficacy on computer-supported collaborative learning. Computers In Human Behavior, 23(5), 2256-2268.

Wang, S., &  Wu, P. (2008). The role of feedback and self-efficacy on web-based learning: The social cognitive perspective. Computers & Education, 51(4), 1589-1598.

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. 1988. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54: 1063-1070

Williams, D. (2005). Bridging the methodological divide in game research. Simulation & Gaming, 36(4).

Zagal, J., Rick, J., & Hsi, I. (2006). Collaborative games: Lessons learned from board games. Simulation & Gaming, 37(1), 24.

Zyda, M., A., Mayberry, J. McCree, and M. Davis, M. (2005). From Viz-Sim to VR to games: How we built a hit game-based simulation.  In Organizational Simulation: From Modeling and Simulation to Games and Entertainment, W. B. Rouse and K. R. Boff, (eds). New York: Wiley